Earthquake of January 26, 2001 in Gujarat, India - A Reconnaissance
Report and Identification of Priority Issues
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District of Kutch, State of Gujarat (India)
January 26, 2001
A Reconnaissance Report
Identification of Priority Issues
DRM-World Institute for Disaster Risk Management
Krishna S. Vatsa
March 16, 2001
Overview of the Event
Impact of the Earthquake
3.1 Damages to
3.2 Loss of Livelihood
Planning for Rehabilitation
Long-term Issues for Rehabilitation and Mitigation
Relocation versus In-situ Reconstruction
Architecture and Building Materials
Urban and Regional Planning
Revival of Crafts and Cottage Industries
Long-term Disaster Mitigation
5.4 Seismic Rezoning
5.5 Seismic Engineering
5.6 Building Codes
Facilities: Schools, Hospitals and Public Buildings
5.9 Critical Infrastructure
Predominance of Life Insurance
Life Insurance for the Poor
Commercial and Property Insurance
Liberalization of Insurance Sector
Setting up of a Catastrophic Reserve
Documentation on Earthquake Damage
from the Reconnaissance Mission
The Government of India's Official web site on the Gujarat earthquake
is a reconnaissance report of the Bhuj earthquake that struck Kutch
and other districts in the western state of Gujarat, India on January
26, 2001. On behalf of the World Institute for Disaster Risk Management
(DRM), Krishna S. Vatsa joined a mission organized by the Earthquake
Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA and visited Gujarat
from February 4 to 12, 2001. The report provides a brief account
of the physical details of the earthquake. It also discusses the
human and economic impact of the earthquake. However, the main objective
of the report is to identify those issues, which are crucial for
long-term rehabilitation and mitigation. These issues are: (i) reconstruction
and development (ii) disaster management planning, (iii) emergency
communications, (iv) seismic rezoning, (v) seismic engineering,
(vi) building codes, (vii) microzonation, (viii) essential facilities,
(ix) critical infrastructure protection, and (x) disaster risk insurance.
The report provides the institutional and regulatory context for
each of these issues. The report also makes recommendations for
implementing appropriate action plans with respect to each of these
issues. The Government of Gujarat has commenced a large-scale rehabilitation
program with the financial assistance of the World Bank and the
Asian Development Bank. It will be necessary to address these long-term
issues in the course of the program implementation to reduce physical
and social vulnerability in the region. A rehabilitation program
encompassing these issues could be a great learning experience for
the rest of India and other developing countries.
Overview of the Event
On January 26, 2001, an extremely severe earthquake struck the state
of Gujarat in western India at 8.46 a.m. The earthquake devastated
the district of Kutch in the northwestern part of the state, and many
other districts of the state also suffered terrible human and property
losses. The city of Ahmedabad, the commercial capital of Gujarat,
which lies 300 kilometers from the epicenter of the earthquake, had
a collapse of more than 70 high-rise residential buildings. It was
the worst disaster to have struck India in the last 50 years.
Kutch region forms a crucial geodynamic part of the western continental
margin of the Indian sub-continent, and falls in the seismically
active Zone-V outside the Himalayan seismic belt. It extends for
approximately 250 km (E-W) and 150 km (N-S) and is flanked by Nagar
Parkar Fault in the north and the Kathiawar Fault in the south.
The area bounded between these two faults comprises several E-W
trending major faults viz. Katrol Hill Fault, Kutch Mainland Fault,
Banni Fault, Island Belt Fault and Allah Bund Fault (Malik, et al,
Source: Government of India's official web site on
the Gujarat earthquake http://gujarat-earthquake.gov.in/final/bhuj.html
V, which includes Andaman & Nicobar Islands, all of North-Eastern
India, parts of north-western Bihar, eastern sections of Uttaranchal,
the Kangra Valley in Himachal Pradesh and the Rann of Kutchh in
Gujarat, is the highest level of seismic hazard. Earthquakes with
magnitudes in excess of 7.0 have occurred in these areas, and have
had epicentral intensities higher than IX on modified Mercalli scale.
The Rann of Kutch has experienced above normal levels of microseismicity
throughout the past 200 years, and probably for many millennia.
Altogether 56 earthquakes have struck the region with magnitude
ranging between three and four, and about seven quakes of five and
above (1819, 1845, 1846, 1856, 1869, 1956, and 2001), the two major
ones being Allah Bund and Anjar in last two hundred years. A severe
earthquake of magnitude 8.0 occurred in 1819 at Bhuj and this gave
rise to an 80 km-long fault scarp, Allah Bund, a natural dam uplifted
at its crest by 6.5 meters, on the northern edge of the Rann. The
second biggest earthquake recorded was on July 21, 1956 in Anjar.
Of a magnitude of 7.0, this earthquake killed about 700 people.
Epicenter and Depth
are varying interpretations about the magnitude and epicenter of
the earthquake. The India Meteorology Department (IMD), which has
a seismograph at Bhuj claimed that the magnitude was 6.9 on the
Richter scale; the Geological Survey of India (GSI) at its Jabalpur
observatory recorded the magnitude of 7.6. The US Geological Survey
(USGS), which has the largest network of seismographs and satellites
for observation, claimed that it was 7.9, but later revised it to
7.7. The India Meteorology Department explained this difference
by saying that the US and other foreign agencies calculated the
magnitude with surface waves as the basic input, whereas the IMD
figure was arrived at by using P waves, i.e. the calculation was
done on Local Magnitude (ML) and the Body Wave Magnitude (MB). The
updated USGS estimate M7.7 is the Energy or Moment magnitude, a
more reliable measure, particularly for large earthquakes.
was followed by a large number of aftershocks. The Indian Meterology
Department (IMD) recorded more than 500 aftershocks of magnitude 3.0
and above, which continued through the month of March.
Initial reports from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) on
January 26, suggested that the epicenter was 23.6 degrees North and
69.8 degrees East which is near village Lodai, located some 20 to
25 km north-northeast of Bhuj. But the Geological Survey of India
(GSI) puts the epicenter at 23.21 degrees north and 70.41 degrees
east, about 76 km east of Bhuj or 100 km NNE of Jamnagar. However,
the US Geological Survey (USGS) claimed that the epicenter was located
at 23.4 degrees North and 70.32 degrees east and 110 km NNE of Jamnagar.
earthquake was a shallow-focus event. The USGS estimated the hypocenter
at 23.6 km below the surface. The preliminary IMD estimate was of
a 15 km. Depth. The University of Tokyo further revised this estimate
to an even shallower depth of 10 km. However, the Incorporated Research
Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) consortium and the National Geophysical
Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad have confirmed the focal depth
of the earthquake at 23.6 km.
Impact of the Earthquake
state of Gujarat was the worst hit by the earthquake. Bhuj, Bachhau,
Anjar, Rapar, and Gandhidham are the worst affected towns in the
district of Kutch, with Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Jamnagar and Patan also
severely affected. Though the impact of the earthquake was felt
in most of the states of India, there were no reports of significant
damages from other states.
to the information available on the web site of the Government of
Gujarat, the total number of people who died in the earthquake is
20,086. The figures of deaths, quoted as more than 50,000 have generally
been exaggerated in the media. The total number of injured is reported
to be 166,000 out of which around 20,000 persons are seriously injured.
The number of people still missing is 233 in Kutch. More than 20,000
head of livestock have perished in the earthquake. Around 300,000
houses, engineered and non-engineered, have collapsed. Approximately
1 million houses have suffered partial damage and destruction. A report
on the government response to the earthquake is available on the web
economic losses have been reported as follows:
Infrastructure & Amenities
figure of US$4.5 billion provided by the Government of Gujarat is
an approximate estimate. The precise estimate of economic losses
due to the earthquake is yet to be established.
Damages to Infrastructure
the first utilities to get knocked out by the quake was the communications
network and power supply. There was an immediate loss of 3000 MW
in the power grid. The tripping of a 220 KV line in Kutch resulted
in total blackout of the whole district. Though the power supply
in Ahmedabad was restored within a few minutes, it took as many
as 15,000 Gujarat Electricity Board (GEB) personnel, 30 truck-loads
of electricity poles, conductors, insulators and circuit breakers
to restore power supply in Bhuj within two days.
damage in the electricity sector has been primarily in distribution.
Most generation plants, which had initially tripped following the
earthquake, started generating within 24 hours and the transmission
systems too were up and running. It was, in fact, the damage caused
to the sub-stations that held up power distribution to cities and
villages. For instance, although Bhuj was supplied with 12 MW within
a day's time, there were no takers for the power.
of the water supply schemes failed because of the collapse of pump
houses, and damage to the intake towers and pipelines. Water supply
in the districts of Rajkot, Jamnagar and Surendranagar were also
affected for similar reasons (The Economic Times, February 2, 2001).
telecom building in Bhuj collapsed, with most of the telecom equipment
destroyed. Fibre-optic cables that gave connectivity to the district
of Kutch were also broken, resulting in isolation of the district
from the rest of the state.
earthquake most seriously affected the Kandla port, the busiest
port in India, which caters to the hinterland of western, central
and northern India. It handles crucial imports of petroleum products,
crude oil and chemicals and exports of agricultural commodities.
About five of 10 jetties may have been damaged, reducing the berthing
facility at the port. There are serious damages to the customs house,
the administrative house, and cargo handling equipment. Several
warehouses have also suffered significant damages. The workers have
migrated from Kandla due to fear of earthquake. This is the second
time in the last two years that the port has suffered heavily due
to natural disaster. In 1998, Kandla was dealt a severe blow by
a cyclone in the Kutch district. The effect of these calamities
is more severe as most of the ports in India do not have insurance
cover. The losses suffered have to be offset through internal accruals
and government assistance.
are relatively less affected. Aside from Surajbari bridge which
connects Gujarat to Kutch district, the national highways continued
to be functional. The earthquake substantially damaged the Surajbari
bridge, and for about 15 days only light commercial vehicles were
allowed over the bridge. More than 6000 Heavy Motor Vehicles (HMVs)
cross the Surajbari bridge everyday, which is the arterial connectivity
to the Kandla port. The bridge has been repaired and is now fully
functional. A new bridge connecting the Rann of Kutch to the national
highway, parallel to the Surajbari bridge, is also being commissioned
Loss of Livelihood
petrochemicals and fertilizer plants in Gujarat emerged unscathed
through the earthquake. However, small-scale industry in Saurashtra
and Kutch has received a severe blow. More than 10,000 small and
medium industrial units have stopped production due to damage to
plants, factories and machinery. Diesel engine manufacturing and
machine and tools industry in Rajkot, ceramic units in Morbi and
Surendranagar, and art and small tools industry in Kutch may find
it difficult to recover. Work at thousands of salt pans has also
stopped after the earthquake. A large number of workers (it is difficult
to get a precise figure)from all the quake-affected cities have
left and returned to their own states.
are about 50,000 craftspersons who live and work in Bhuj, Anjar,
Rapar, Hodka, and surrounding villages, now completely devastated
by the earthquake. Kutch is nationally recognized for its rich quality
and variety of craftware. Many of the local craftspersons have died
in the earthquake. Besides, most of them lost their houses, workshops,
and tools, and are likely to face bleak days ahead. The loss of
their income opportunities due to loss of productive human and physical
assets in the Kutch and Saurashtra areas has been a major consequence
of the earthquake. People with little access to income-earning opportunities
are more vulnerable. Along with shelter, the restoration of livelihood
will be a priority for the rehabilitation program.
Planning for Rehabilitation
Government of Gujarat (GoG) has set up the Gujarat State Disaster
Management Authority (GSDMA), which would implement the reconstruction
and rehabilitation, with support from various other agencies in
the quake-hit area. The GoG has announced four packages amounting
to almost US $1 billion for reconstruction and economic rehabilitation
for more than 300,000 families.
first package takes care of 229 villages where more than 70 per
cent of the houses have collapsed. At the rate of nearly Rs. 30
million per village, it has earmarked Rs. 3 million for land acquisition,
Rs. 7 million for infrastructure, and Rs. 18 million for constructing
200 engineered, quake and cyclone-resistant engineered houses,
and Rs. 2 million for other emergency facilities in each village.
second package is for villages with less than 70 percent destruction
and whose residents do not wish to be shifted to a new location.
Here, the poor(1) whose houses have been destroyed would get Rs.
35,000. Others owning between 25 and 45 square meters of land,
but whose houses have been totally destroyed, will receive between
Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 90,000.
third package is for those villages, which are situated far away
from the epicenter but where individual houses have been destroyed.
Here, the aid ranges from Rs. 7,000 for totally destroyed huts
to Rs. 40,000 for fully destroyed semi-pucca houses. Houses suffering
50 per cent destruction would get Rs. 20,000 and those having
minor cracks Rs. 2,000 per house or hut.
is also a fourth package, meant to take care of the middle-class
flats and houses wrecked by the earthquake in Ahmedabad, Rajkot,
and Surat. The Government will announce the fifth package later
for the residents of Bhuj, Anjar, Bhachau, Rapar, and Gandhidham
after consulting residents.
details of these rehabilitation packages are available on a web
The government has also announced US$2.5 million package to revive
small, medium and cottage industries. Damage assessment is still
going on, and the final shape of the rehabilitation program will
soon be firmed up.
World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have announced loans worth
$300 million and $500 million respectively. The Government of Gujarat
(GoG) has put forward a soft loan proposal of $1.5 billion to these
two multilateral agencies. A number of other bilateral agencies
including the European Union (EU), the Department for International
Development (DFID), the United States Agency for International Development
(USAID), and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
have also agreed to provide financial assistance for the rehabilitation
program. The Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) and
the National Housing Bank (NHB), two major public sector institutions
in India's housing sector, have also offered to provide financial
assistance of US$400 million. While there has been no major impact
on industrial units owned by major corporate groups, the leading
chambers--the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) and the Federation
of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries (FICCI)-- have offered
to adopt clusters of quake-ravaged villages for relief and long-term
rehabilitation. A number of business groups such as Reliance, VSNL,
Larsen & Toubro, Tata Steel, Coca-Cola, Essar and Videocon have
decided to contribute to the rehabilitation program. Public sector
industries too have provided huge donations for rehabilitation.
number of NGOs, national and international, have participated in
the relief operations. Many of these NGOs will gradually withdraw
after the relief phase closes, as they do not have sufficient resources
to participate in the reconstruction program, or do not have a long-term
plan for local involvement. However, a number of larger NGOs will
continue and contribute to the rehabilitation program. The government
is actively seeking the NGOs to adopt villages for rehabilitation.
It has announced a contribution of 50 per cent of the cost of rehabilitation,
if a NGOs adopts the village for rehabilitation. Gujarat has a large
number of prosperous expatriates settled abroad, and they will also
contribute generously to the rehabilitation program.
prompt assistance declared by the World Bank, the Asian Development
Bank, a host of other donors and the Government of India has made
it possible for the Government of Gujarat to mobilize adequate resources
for the reconstruction program. The corporate sector and NGOs have
also decided to contributed to the cost of reconstruction in a significant
way. The cost of reconstruction would be funded through the following
the Government of India and the Government of Gujarat
grants and loans of bilateral agencies
multilateral loan funding from the World Bank and the Asian Development
the Prime Minister's and Chief Minister's Relief Funds
the corporate sector and NGOs
Insurance companies, banks and financial institutions
it will be a great challenge to utilize the resources effectively
for rebuilding Gujarat. An earthquake rehabilitation program of
this magnitude requires careful planning and efficient management
structures. It will also be important to establish norms of accountability
and transparency in the implementation of the program. A strong
community orientation is also critical for the success of the program.
Long-term Issues for Reconstruction and Mitigation
program is always a great opportunity for civic improvement. It
regenerates the local economy due to massive investment over a short
period of time. It can improve the quality of housing, and social
and community infrastructure. It can also be a context for introducing
mitigation and preparedness practices. People also tend to accept
regulations better in these circumstances. In Gujarat, and also
in the whole of the country, reconstruction programs should aim
to realize these opportunities. This report identifies a number
of issues that may be considered for rehabilitation and mitigation
planning at the state and national level:
Reconstruction and Development
engineering issues involved in reconstruction, a number of planning
and architectural issues are involved, which require a wide range
Relocation versus In-situ Reconstruction: It is always
a contentious issue, which makes it difficult to build a consensus
within the community. It is important to be flexible, and seek
extensive consultation with the community at the village and town
level. The decision could be taken on the basis of choice of the
community for every village or town, and so a policy pronouncement
should not preempt making these choices. However, there are certain
areas that require expert inputs.
it is important to have a geological and geotechnical investigation
of the site on which the settlement is planned. If the existing
site is exposed to elevated, it is preferable to shift the village
to a new location.
it is essential to assess if the present population of the settlement
could be resettled on the existing site of the village or town.
All these villages and towns have been settled a long time back
for a much smaller population. In the intervening years, the population
has grown, and it is likely that the existing area may prove to
be inadequate. In such a case, it will be necessary to look for
more land or an alternative site on which the extended settlement
could be planned.
are the poor and marginal sections of the society getting a fair
deal in the rehabilitation? They generally live in the most unfavorable
parts of the village, and rehabilitation should give them an opportunity
to rebuild their lives in a more equitable way.
there should be enough area available for social and community
infrastructure, and all the segments of the population must be
able to access these facilities. In fact, the rehabilitation could
be a combination of relocation and in-situ construction. It therefore
demands land use and rural resettlement planning for every village
and town individually.
Architecture and Building Materials: These constitute the
most critical issues for the success of a rehabilitation program,
and need detailed inputs of experts. A number of designs and technical
recommendations could be prescribed for substructure, superstructure,
roofs, walls, and openings. Choices could be made among prefabricated,
modular, and regular structures. Similarly, there could be a number
of options for building materials-RCC, stone masonry, brick masonry,
and adobe. Expert opinion helps the community in making an informed
Urban and Regional Planning: In the rehabilitation program,
five towns in the Kutch region need to be rehabilitated. These
towns will require considerable land use and infrastructure planning.
There is also a great opportunity to upgrade many of the facilities
in these towns such as water supply, sewage, waste disposal, and
parks and recreation. While these towns can be resettled, many
of their traditional features and landscapes could be preserved
through careful planning.
Since the rehabilitation will cover almost the entire Kutch region,
a number of initiatives can be taken for regional planning. For
example, a new transportation system for the entire region can
be planned. Similarly, a new education and health system, much
different from the existing system and of very high standards,
can be introduced. Industrial estates, technology parks, and craft
enclaves can be built in different areas, creating a balance of
sectoral activities in the entire region. A great deal can be
achieved through the involvement of institutions and experts specializing
in urban and regional planning and architecture.
Revival of Crafts and Cottage Industries: Kutch has an
abundant diversity of crafts, and the district alone has perhaps
more honored and recognized craftspersons than any other part
of the country. For every material-wool, textile, wood, clay,
stone, brass, zari, and mirror-there is a specialist craftsperson
who can produce exquisite products. Kutch is also a unique resource
center for all kinds of techniques-vegetable dyes, embroidery,
block prints, resist dyes, turning and lacquering, etc. The rehabilitation
program in Kutch will have to make a prioritized plan for the
economic recovery of these crafts and craftpersons, restore their
workshops, and ensure that they are able to continue their activities
in their own rural environment. Microfinance services can be of
great relevance in reviving these economic activities. The NGO
network in Gujarat has used microfinance as an empowering instrument
for the poor and women, and the rehabilitation program provides
an appropriate context for its application.
Disaster Management Planning
is a disaster-prone state. In the last few years, cyclones, floods,
and droughts have repeatedly struck the state of Gujarat. The cyclone
that struck Kandla in 1998 was particularly severe, causing deaths
of more than 3,000 people. The frequency of disasters impressed
upon the Government of Gujarat the importance of developing a comprehensive
disaster management plan. However, the state could not mobilize
resources for its implementation. After this earthquake, there is
a consensus on capacity building in this area within the state and
the country. The Government of Gujarat's renaming of the Earthquake
Rehabilitation Authority as the Disaster Management Authority is
symbolic of the importance it attaches to the disaster management
system in the state. The state seems to have taken a broader approach
to disaster management, by constituting this focal agency for dealing
with all the hazards. Disaster management will be one of the most
important components of the rehabilitation program supported by
the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank.
the national level too, there are major initiatives under consideration.
The Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee constituted a committee
under his own chairmanship to suggest the necessary institutional
and legislative measures required for aneffective and long-term
disaster management strategy. A number of senior ministers and opposition
leaders are members of this committee. The Government of India has
decided to set up a National Center for Calamity Management. A High
Powered Committee is also deliberating institutional changes in
disaster management organization at the national level.
Gujarat, a new disaster management system may address the following
Emergency Response: The weaknesses in emergency response
during the recent earthquake and 1998 cyclone point to a number
of steps required for strengthening emergency response and quick
deployment of resources by the government agencies:
Response Plan at the state and district level
Disaster Management Information System
Institutional Development: Institutional strengthening
of the government agencies, backed by a statutory scheme, is necessary
for the implementation of the disaster management system. The
agenda for institutional strengthening may address the following
State Disaster Management Agency
Management Set-up in Municipal Corporations
Training, Resource and Documentation Center
Long-term Disaster Mitigation: There is a strong case for
implementing long-term mitigation programs, which promote access
to and application of financial and technical resources, and applied
research. These specific programs are:
and Vulnerability Analysis
Hazard Map, Microzonation and Seismic Building Code
Early Warning System
Forecasting and Storm Surge Modeling
initiatives require a great deal of planning, organization, and
technical assistance. The disaster management system also requires
a long-term financial commitment and resources for sustainability.
It must therefore be implemented as a program separately from the
reconstruction activities. India and the state of Gujarat can benefit
from the experience of disaster management institutions and practices
in the developed countries. It will also be useful to build collaboration
with national and international research institutions and universities
from abroad for the implementation of technical components of the
disaster management plan. Applied research, technology transfer
and training will be important components of a disaster management
all the disaster management components, the emergency communications
network is most crucial to emergency response. It ensures the flow
of information, tracks emergency needs and helps in deployment of
the emergency personnel. In this earthquake, the communication link
with Bhuj could be restored only two days after the earthquake,
and even after 10 full days, communication with Bhuj was not back
to normal. The cellular network in the state failed. A large part
of the state remained completely disconnected. The lack of communications
impeded information flow and seriously affected relief operations.
The situation was similar to the Orissa cyclone or the Marmara (Turkey)
earthquake in 1999, where the disaster-affected areas were completely
cut off from the rest of the country due to communications breakdown,
impeding the rescue and relief efforts.
recent disasters clearly demonstrate that despite significant technological
advances, the basic need for communications in extreme situation
still remains-getting the right information at the right time. The
tools now available to gather and deliver that information range
from small, hand-held shortwave radio units to complex satellite
systems, but, unfortunately, they are not always in the right place
when disaster threatens or strikes and even, if they are, they do
not provide the necessary information on vulnerable situations.
It has created serious problems for those who rely on receiving
the right information.
management plan must persuade for the creation of an efficient communications
infrastructure. A new telecom network may be designed connecting
the state capital to the lowest administrative units. The network
must be robust and dependable, and in case of a breakdown, alternative
arrangements must be activated. It could be a multi-tier network,
between different levels of administration-state to district, district
to Taluka, and further down to villages-- with combination of technologies.
Given that the cellular operators were the first to bring back their
services even in the most affected areas like Gandhidham and Bhuj,
the first choice of technology should be wireless. VHF and HF communication,
mobile radio trunking system, and wireless in local loop are some
of the technological alternatives. A great deal of applied research
is going on for the development of advanced versions of wireless
technology, and the new applications must be harnessed for building
the communications network. ().
feasibility study for setting up a communications network is the first
step. All the relevant technologies should be assessed for the appropriateness
in the context of Gujarat's physical terrain. The participation of
private sector and technical groups will be very important for setting
up the statewide communications network.
first national seismic hazard map of India was compiled by the Geological
Survey of India (GSI) in 1935. A second national seismic hazard
map was published in 1965, based primarily on earthquake epicentral
and isoseismal maps published by the GSI.
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), which is the official agency for
publishing seismic hazard maps and codes in India, produced a six-zone
map in 1962, a seven zone map in 1966, and a five zone map in 1970
/ 1984 (Bhatia, et al., year not specified) The last of these maps
is accepted by all the national agencies currently valid; this map
was created based on the values of maximum Modified Mercalli intensities
observed in various parts of the country, in historic times.
Source: The Government of India's official website
on the Gujarat earthquake http://gujarat-earthquake.gov.in/final/seismic.html
Seismic hazard map of India and adjoining regions
for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years Source: GSHAP, available
National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad prepared this
seismic hazard for the Indian region under the Global Seismic Hazard
successive seismic zonation maps of India more closely represented
known seismotectonic features without sacrificing the information
obtained from earthquakes and from theoretical ground motion attenuation
relationships. Another significant change in the revised maps was
the abolition of zone zero, in recognition of the fact that it was
not scientifically sound to depict any region of India to have the
probability of an earthquake equal to zero. This had the desired
effect of including some level of seismic provisions in the design
of important structures.
et.al. (1984) prepared a probabilistic seismic hazard map of the
Himalayas and adjoining areas that depicts contours of peak acceleration
(in %g) with a 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years (Bhatia,
et.al., year not specified). The present five-zone map, which is
currently under revision, is as follows(2):
V (Very high risk quakes of magnitude 8 and greater): The entire
North-east, including all the seven sister states, the Kutch district,
parts of Himachal and Jammu & Kashmir, and the Andaman and Nicobar
islands. These areas may experience Intensity IX and above on Modified
Mercalli Intensity Scale.
IV (High risk quakes up to magnitude 7.9): Parts of the Northern
belt starting from Jammu and Kashmir to Himachal Pradesh. Also including
Delhi and parts of Haryana. The Koyna region of Maharashtra is also
in this zone. These areas may experience to MM VIII.
III (Moderate earthquakes up to magnitude 6.9): A large part of
the country stretching from the North including some parts of Rajasthan
to the South through the Konkan coast, and also the Eastern parts
of the country. A moderate risk zone associated with the intensity
maximum of MM VII.
II and Zone I (Seismic Disturbances up to magnitude 4.9): These
two zones are contiguous, covering parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,
Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan, known as low risk earthquake
zones. These areas may experience intensity MM VI .
Deccan Peninsula, known as the Stable Continental Region (SCR),
has experienced a number of seismic disturbances in the recent past.
In the last decade, two major earthquakes (Jabalpur, 1998), and
Latur (1993) have occurred in this region. Bhuj too lay in the northern
fringe of the stable continental region of India. Besides, in recent
times, the country has experienced a series of earthquakes in other
areas too: Bihar-Nepal (1988), Uttarkashi (1991), and Chamoli (1999).
The frequency of earthquakes in India has necessitated a major re-assessment
of its hazard potential on a national basis.
of seismic zones of India has also become necessary in view of the
growth in population and built environment across the country. The
death toll from the Bhuj earthquake is almost 20 times higher than
that of the 1819 earthquake(3), though both the earthquakes had a
comparable magnitude. The rise in death toll is largely due to greater
risk exposure on account of population growth in the Kutch district.
Today, Delhi and Mumbai have become extremely vulnerable to seismic
hazard, largely due to unregulated construction in these cities.
Koyna (1967) and Latur (1993) earthquakes followed by Jabalpur (1998)
are the first few recorded earthquakes in the Stable Continental
Region (SCR) in recent history. These represented a new phenomenon
for the earthquake scientists, and underlined the need for reconsideration
of the seismic zones of India. The BIS undertook a program to reconsider
the seismic zone of India, but it is yet to be completed. In the
meanwhile, an international seismic hazard map has been developed
by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). Seismic instrumentation
in India has improved somewhat. The Indian Meteorological Department
has upgraded 10 seismological observatories in peninsular India.
A National Seismological Database Center and a Central Receiving
Station have been established in New Delhi to receive, archive and
analyze seismic data.
the level of states too, specific programs have been undertaken
to study seismic hazards. The state of Maharashtra has prepared
a probabilistic seismic hazard map for the state. A similar exercise
is underway in Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal. The Government of
India has prepared a Vulnerability Atlas, which provides state-wise
details of housing stock, exposed to seismic hazard.
developments provide the opportunity for a major collaborative effort
to review the seismic zones of India. Various state agencies and research
institutions from India and abroad can collaborate on such a project
project.The project can also identify and implement a seismic instrumentation
program, which would improve seismic monitoring in the country. The
project, based on seismological and geological investigations, can
harness recent developments in seismic studies, sensor design, and
telemetry to draw an updated and relevant seismic zone map for the
the earthquake, reinforced concrete (RC) buildings of ground floor
plus four storys (G+4) and ground floor plus ten storeys and above
(G+10) collapsed in Ahmedabad resulting in 746 causalities(4).
In the city, only minor damage was observed in single, or two story
short-period structures. Most of the damage was limited to G+4 through
G+10 storey buildings having "soft story" at the ground
floor. These buildings were not designed for lateral loads as required
by IS 1893 (Zone III) and had, of course, no concept of ductile
detailing for G+10 buildings as recommended in IS 13920 (Goyal,
et al, 2001)(5).
the earthquake, the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) deployed
several teams of structural engineers, architects and senior civil
engineers for a technical survey of all the damaged buildings. Each
team came up with at least four to five buildings on an average,
which would have to undergo major repairs before the occupants can
move back in. These teams found apparent violations of the Indian
Standard Code for Zone III. Building code violation was most prevalent
in low-rise structures. The quality of concrete used in columns
and building frames deviated from norms stipulated in the building
Bhuj, all of more than 100 multi-storey buildings that were built
over the last five years either collapsed, or, have been certified
as unsafe for habitation. Over the last two years, buildings of
up to eight floors had been approved in Bhuj without adequate technical
review. The building plans ---- are supposed to be approved as per
the IS building code for Zone V. However, there was little effort
at compliance with building codes on the part of the municipal authorities.
The builders cut cost, used more concrete and less steel. Staircases
were not integrated into buildings, which caused their collapse.
the Government of Gujarat regularized illegal structures and violations
in six major cities of the state by levying an 'impact fee'. Conceding
that several buildings were constructed in contravention of regulations,
the government pleaded that "administratively, removal or pulling
down of a large number of buildings is neither feasible nor desirable"
and that it was "fraught with the possibility of creating law
and order problem and hardships to the people". Within the jurisdiction
of Ahmedabad Municipal Council, about 200 of 450 multi-storey buildings
do not have Building Use permission(6).
In the areas covered by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority
(AUDA), hardly 25 of the 200-odd multi-storey buildings have bothered
to take the building permission (Indian Express, Feb. 8, 2001).
AMC has appointed the Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology
(CEPT) as a nodal agency for providing technical services. However,
the CEPT has not been able to find enough structural engineers.
A great number of structural engineers will be required to deal
with the reconstruction and retrofitting elsewhere in the state.
In addition, damages to non-engineered buildings also need to be
addressed on a large scale.
of the most important priorities of the reconstruction program will,
therefore, be a capacity building program in seismic engineering
at the state level. The program may include several components:
and enforcement of Indian Standard (IS) building codes for different
to civil and structural engineers in seismic resistant design
demonstration program in seismic technology at different places
assistance and training for retrofitting / reconstruction of non-engineered
assistance for earthquake-resistant construction of schools and
of seismic technology through academic and research institutions.
of an information, education and communication program for popular
spread of seismic technology.
engineering must be the cornerstone of the rehabilitation program.
This is an area where significant work has been done in the US,
Japan and many developed countries. There are new technologies available,
base isolation being one of the most important among them. In the
beginning of the rehabilitation program, the following steps may
pilot program can be implemented in different parts of the quake-affected
region, demonstrating these new technologies and seismic resistant
state engineering colleges could be involved in training of a
large number of civil and structural engineers in seismic technology.
will be essential to organize a large-scale training program for
local masons. It will also be important to train women masons.
It helps in spreading awareness among the community.
mobile exhibition of seismic technology can be organized for spreading
will be very useful to organize an orientation program for non-technical
officials and panchayat leaders.
technical guidebook for reconstruction, retrofitting, and strengthening
can be prepared which guides engineers in seismic resistant construction.
experts from India and abroad can work with the government, municipal
corporations, engineering colleges, and research institutions on
seismic engineering issues. A continuous education and training
program can also be supported through a collaborative effort of
earthquake engineering experts from abroad and the national institutions.
earthquake has dramatically demonstrated the need for compliance
with building codes in the state. The Government is reviewing its
existing building by-laws and regulations as per the provisions
of the National Building Code, and till these regulations are finalized
the state government has directed the municipal commissioners of
all the six big cities not to approve building plans irrespective
of their status.
with building codes has been a serious issue for the Government
of India too. The Ministry of Urban Development is considering introducing
a national engineering law for the enforcement of building codes
and certification of structural engineers. However, much more needs
to be done.
is argued that though India has rigorous building codes, their enforcement
is not mandatory. However, this is not entirely true. While there
is no national law regarding the enforcement of building codes,
these codes have been incorporated into the by-laws adopted by the
municipal corporations. These by-laws require mandatory compliance
with the building codes. However, the enforcement of these by-laws
has been a serious problem due to the lack of trained engineers,
poor monitoring of building practices, and corruption. It is also
true that popular awareness about the importance of code compliance
is very low. Unless these issues are appropriately addressed, the
legal provisions will not be very effective in reducing risk.
rural areas, most of houses are non-engineered. Though there are
standards for non-engineered houses, enforcing these codes will
require a regulatory authority and technical guidance for a very
large area, which is difficult to provide. A village council (panchayat)
cannot be expected to enforce building codes. It requires enormous
investment in setting up and sustaining a regulatory mechanism for
the entire country.
fact, the enforcement of building codes is not possible without
a national initiative. A national program comprising several measures
and incentives should be instituted to promote compliance with building
codes. National legislation for building codes, technical courses
in seismic engineering, a certification system for qualified structural
engineers, interaction with local governance structures, and public
awareness about the codes are the essential constituents of a national
earthquake mitigation program. It will be useful to commission a
multi-disciplinary study as a first step that could discuss the
state of compliance with building codes in India, and suggest relevant
measures to improve them.
geological and soil conditions contributed significantly to structural
A preliminary analysis of the pattern of collapsed, partially collapsed
and damaged buildings in Ahmedabad has led scientists to believe
that there may be many more factors, mainly geological and geotechnical
that need to be considered while analyzing a collapse or constructing
buildings afresh. The location of the building is of utmost importance.
If it lies in a fault zone or on soft soil as most of Ahmedabad
does, then the danger is even greater.
microzonation maps, , are essential tools for effective earthquake
and related land use planning. Seismic microzonation maps are detailed
maps that identify the relative potential for ground failure or
amplification during an earthquake in different areas. They may
include one or more seismic characteristics (liquefaction, amplification,
land sliding, tsunamis, subsidence). They are compiled from geological
and geotechnical data and they reflect local site conditions
is necessary to produce seismic microzonation maps, which have all
the above-mentioned details at the local level, following an earthquake,
before deciding on future locations for rebuilding. There is always
a possibility of geological hazards, at locations where the earlier
buildings have collapsed. All decisions regarding the land use planning
must be subject to the exercise of microzonation.
zones are useful for broad specification and design of ordinary buildings.
However, microzonation is particularly needed for big cities and the
most vulnerable areas. The local ground vibration varies depending
on the local soil conditions. Microzonation would incorporate these
small-scale variations also. In microzonation one can incorporate
conditions of existing buildings with seismic hazard to arrive at
a seismic risk status of the built environment down to the block or
street level. This is of great help in minimizing the damage through
strengthening measures. An expert group formed after the earthquake
has recommended microzonation of all the Zone V areas in the country.
is important to undertake a detailed microzonation exercise for
the settled areas of the Kutch region, which falls in Zone V. Besides,
Ahmedabad and other major cities of Gujarat should also be included
in this exercise. The microzonation program will help in deciding
the location of new settlements, if it is undertaken along with
the rehabilitation. In India, comprehensive microzonation has not
been attempted in any part of the country, and so a beginning in
Gujarat will be a very positive initiative in seismic mitigation.
Essential Facilities: schools, hospitals and public buildings
facilities are those buildings that support functions related to
post-disaster emergency response and disaster management. These
include state secretariat, district headquarters, police and fire
stations, hospitals, potential shelters (including school buildings),
and buildings that house emergency services. The unimpeded availability
and functionality of these buildings immediately after a disaster
is a top priority in disaster preparedness.
be useful to develop a separate rehabilitation strategy for this group
of buildings. In the case of these buildings, their public use and
availability are far more important than the potential economic loss.
A statewide retrofitting program for the buildings should be initiated.
For example, in Ahmedabad, the office of the Municipal Corporation
and the Collector must be retrofitted on a priority basis. Based on
a rapid seismic appraisal of these buildings, a retrofitting solution
can be developed. If it is not possible to include all the essential
facilities, at least a few public buildings in every district of Gujarat
may be selected on the criteria of functional criticality, predicted
ground motions, and expected structural performance. New economical
retrofit methods should be developed and standardized. Technology
developed for the seismic retrofit of these essential facilities can
be transferred later to commercial and industrial facilities.
a large number of deaths in the Bhuj earthquake took place due to
collapse of schools and hospitals, it is most important to implement
a specific program of seismic retrofitting and strengthening of
all the schools and hospitals in quake-prone areas. It is necessary
to prepare earthquake resistant designs for all the existing schools
and hospitals, and implement it under expert guidance. It will require
a large-scale engineering effort. The program may benefit greatly
from the experiences of seismic strengthening and retrofitting of
school buildings and hospitals in other countries.
of new technology and building designs have evolved in Japan, New
Zealand and the US for earthquake-resistant buildings, including
extensive use of shear walls to take lateral loads. All of them
should necessarily be incorporated in all our future designs to
ensure better protections.
Critical Infrastructure Protection
Gujarat State Electricity Board (GSEB), which has suffered damage
of US$75 million is now considering quake-resistant designs of control
rooms, sub-stations and other structures housing key equipment at
different locations in the state. According to the GSEB, it will
adopt designs suggested by the Power Grid Corporation Limited (PGCL)
and the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) for their key
installations. The GSEB is also looking for possible sources to
finance its quake resistant construction.
port has been hit repeatedly by natural disasters. Gujarat has some
40 ports including India's busiest at Kandla - which was affected
by the earthquake. Kandla handles most of India's shipping with
the Middle East and Africa. These ports face a serious hazard of
cyclones too. None of these ports has insurance cover. According
to officials, the premium charged by the insurance companies on
ports is so high that it does not make economic sense to purchase
insurance , especially since these disasters normally occur only
once in about 50 years. After the earthquake, the experts from the
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras have visited Kandla port
for damage assessment. They will provide structural solutions for
retrofitting and future loss reduction.
Bhuj airport was seriously damaged and the air traffic control tower
came down in the earthquake. The Indian Air Force made it operational
the same day by setting up a makeshift control tower facility. There
were long cracks on major highways, and water supply schemes were
rendered completely dysfunctional.
times, Gujarat has taken significant initiatives in infrastructure
building, in particular, roads, and water supply programs. The Infrastructure
Leasing and Finance Limited (IFCL) has made a number of investments
in Gujarat in the transport sector. The Gujarat government plans to
set up a Rs 5000 million-infrastructure fund. It will be important
to develop an action plan and provide resources for a critical infrastructure
protection plan in view of serious natural and technological hazards
in Gujarat. It will require new technology, higher safety standards,
and better maintenance protocols. It is also very important to address
the issue of interdependence of critical infrastructure system. For
example, power breakdown results in interruption of water supply systems.
The rehabilitation program provides an opportunity to suggest measures
for reducing the vulnerability of critical infrastructure and building
redundancies in the system.
Disaster Risk Insurance
Predominance of Life Insurance: The state of Gujarat has
one of the country's highest concentrations of insured. Most of
the insurance is for life. There are close to 7.2 million policyholders
in Gujarat out of the total state population of 48.3 million.
The total exposure amounted to about Rs 330,000 million and the
average sum insured is about Rs. 46,000(7).
Various government, rural-based schemes, householder policies
have supported life insurance in Gujarat.
Gujarat, a large number of deaths took place in high-rise buildings
where the proportion of people with insurance policies is quite
high. The State-owned Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) expects
about 13,000 death claims, with about 10,000 claims coming from
Bhuj and other parts of Kutch district. Another 30,000 claims
are expected on account of injury resulting in partial or full
disablement. The LIC could end up paying close to Rs 2000 million
towards settlement of insurance claims in the earthquake-hit areas
Life Insurance for the Poor: Interestingly, however, it
has been the government's initiative that has expanded insurance
cover across the nation among the poor. Just before the earthquake,
a large number of farmers and villages in the devastated parts
of Gujarat had opted for the Janata Personal Accident Cover, whereby
they were insured against death on account of personal accident
by any means. These covers insurance for the poor in the rural
sector to the extent of Rs 15,000 per person. The district authorities
pay the premia, of Rs. 10 per year per person, for this cover.
Though the quantum of claims is small, the number of those insured
is very large in number. The National Insurance Company is looking
into covers issued to more than 100,000 rural people under the
Janata Personal Accident Cover. Other insurance firms too like
the Oriental Insurance and New India Insurance have insured landless
labor and marginal farmers under similar government-paid schemes.
spread of credit card usage by issuing banks has also resulted
in greater insurance coverage in the area of personal line, including
accident and death due to earthquake. The credit card holders
in India are covered for life where the compensation amount varies
between Rs 100,000 to 200,000. In the case of those who had opted
for the New India Assurance Good Health, Personal Accident or
Mediclaim Policy, individual reimbursement of hospitalization
expenses and loss of life vary between Rs 200,000 to 500,000.
Commercial and Property Insurance: It is in buildings and
factories, where the massive destruction took place, however,
there was virtually no insurance cover. The level of property
insurance in India is very low. In addition, the cost of earthquake
insurance in India has been quite high. Premiums collected by
the four national insurers against the occurrence of earthquake
that fall under fire insurance policies amount to just Rs 4,500
million (US$100 million). This is just 7.5 per cent of the aggregate
Rs 60,000 million-premium income for the four companies.
households tend to take property insurance without paying additional
premium for the earthquake cover. Only those who have taken loans
against their property have taken a comprehensive cover as defined
by housing finance companies, which insist on earthquake protection.
Property mortgaged to any of the leading financial institutions,
such as the Housing Development and Finance Corporation (HDFC),
the General Insurance Company (GIC) and the Life Insurance Company
(LIC) are necessarily fully insured, inclusive of earthquake cover.
payment of additional premium for the earthquake cover is a worldwide
phenomenon, and one that will be practiced by the new general
insurance players once their products enter the market. The availability
of earthquake coverage comes at a price relative to the risks.
Obviously, the premium for earthquake coverage in Madhya Pradesh
will be much less than in the Himalayan areas, where the level
of seismicity is very high.
big firms operating in Gujarat, like Reliance, Indian Petrochemicals
Company Limited (IPCL), Indian Oil, or Essar, are covered under
a mega policy, which includes earthquakes and even potential loss
of profit due to disruption of business caused by earthquakes.
These industries have not suffered much damage in the earthquake.
While the total risk cover of these top firms is around Rs. 300,000
million in Gujarat, other smaller industries are insured for around
Rs. 100,000 million. Of this, around a fourth is in the Bhuj-Ahmedabad
area. Virtually, none of these smaller industries has the coverage
for earthquake risk.
infrastructure in India does not really have the insurance cover.
According to one report, the Kandla port was in the midst of negotiating
an insurance cover for the port. The Mundra port, a joint venture
between the private sector and the Gujarat government, was, however,
insured. The Mundra port was not affected much by the quake, and
operations continued without any major disruptions.
maximum total payment from insurance firms in settlement of insurance
claims in earthquake affected areas of Gujarat is likely to be
around Rs. 10,000 million (US$200 million).
Liberalization of Insurance Sector: Insurance sector in
India has recently opened up to international participation. The
Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) has been set
up, which provides license to insurance companies in the private
sector to operate in the country. It has issued licenses to about
10 private international insurance companies for operating in
the Indian market. With new operators getting into the Indian
market, it is expected that the coverage of property insurance
will increase, and the insurers will provide new tools for disaster
India, for seismic risk, areas are graded on a scale of 1 to 5
for the likelihood of quakes, and this is reflected in the insurance
rates offered to property -owners in those areas. In India, premiums
vary from Re 1 per Rs. 1,000 sum assured in Zone V, the most risk-prone
area, to as little as Rs. 0.1 per Rs. 1,000 sum assured in zone
I, the least risk-prone area. In addition to states like Gujarat
and Tamil Nadu, the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh and some parts
of Assam fall under the most sensitive category. Eastern Bihar,
areas adjoining Nepal, Darjeeling in West Bengal, Delhi, Jaipur
and western Uttar Pradesh have been classified as semi-sensitive,
and quake cover rates stands at Rs. 0.6 per Rs.1,000 sum assured.
the Tariff Advisory Committee has undertaken to outline tariffs
based on seismically active zones, private insurers feel a lot
more can be done if the tariff regime is done away with, in light
of the opening up of the Indian insurance market. Should new players
be given a free hand, it would facilitate them to price products
better, even in the case of quake cover.
developed countries, the criteria for pricing homeowners' risks
are based on various aspects, including the soil it was constructed
on, the foundation of the construction, the height of the building
and the occupancy of the premises, among others. Earthquake insurance
rates differ from one insurance company to another, depending
on several rating factors. Older constructions generally cost
more to insure than new homes. Wooden houses get better rates
than brick ones because they tend to withstand quake stresses
Indian scene is expected to change not so much in terms of products
addressing earthquake cover, but in assuring a good basket of
risk-based premiums. New players intend to verify and inspect
premises prior to granting insurance cover against earthquakes.
New players are in the process of mapping out these risks, city-wise.
However, given the limitations on account of the tariff regime,
their hands are tied to a large extent.
Setting up of a Catastrophic Reserve: The Insurance Regulatory
and Development Authority (IRDA) is planning to set up a catastrophe
reserve where insurance companies could be asked to contribute
2 per cent of their premium income annually. According to the
IRDA, the regulator is planning to approach the Central Board
of Direct Taxes seeking a tax exemption for the contribution made
by life and general insurance companies. It is still being contemplated
whether it would be better to set up a catastrophe reserve or
an equalization fund, but the first option seems more feasible.
At last year's level of premium income, a 2 per cent contribution
to the catastrophe reserve by the five state-owned insurance companies
would result in an initial corpus of about US$160 million.
the accounting guidelines issued by the IRDA, there is a provision
for a catastrophe reserve. The guidelines said that the reserve
is aimed towards meeting losses, which might arise due to an entirely
unexpected set of events and not for any specific known purposes.
The reserve is in the nature of an amount set aside for potential
future liability against insurance policies in force. The IRDA
will issue a set of guidelines for the creation of a catastrophic
number of new initiatives must also be taken at the level of the
government. In Turkey, after the Marmara earthquake, the Government
has taken a decision to set up an insurance pool for covering
seismic risk. India faces a regular series of natural disasters
each year. Cyclones, floods, droughts and earthquakes are all
part of the geographic profile of the sub-continent. They all
impose a financial responsibility on the national and state governments.
Surely it would be in the interest of the state to create a mechanism
- a natural disaster insurance or hedge fund - to which mandated
annual contributions be made out of the budget. The size of the
contribution can be determined by a statistical analysis of the
occurrence of disasters and their financial impact. The government
support for personal insurance has been a welcome step. Many more
products and services could be offered with the government support.
The IRDA can take a major initiative in this area. One of the
first steps could be to commission a detailed study of the feasibility
of increasing insurance cover against natural disasters in the
context of liberalization of insurance sector.
program on the scale that is being planned in Gujarat provides a
great opportunity for supporting all the initiatives mentioned above.
These initiatives can be implemented at the national as well as
state level. However, it will require resources, planning, and an
implementation strategy. It also requires collaborative programs
across agencies and institutions within the country and abroad.
It will be necessary to support the Government of Gujarat in planning
and implementing all the activities. A successful implementation
of the above-mentioned activities in Gujarat will demonstrate the
importance of disaster management and mitigation planning for all
the developing countries.
Photos from the Reconnaissance Mission
Roger. 1998. Slip parameters for the Rann of Kachchh, India, 16
June 1819 earthquake, quantified from contemporary accounts. Available
S.C., Ravi Kumar, M. and Gupta, (Year not specified). H.K. A Probabilistic
Hazard Map of India and Adjoining Regions. GSHAP. Available on http://seismo.ethz.ch/gshap/ict/india.html.
Alok, Sinha, Ravi, Chaudhari, Madhusudan, Jaiswal, Kishor. 2001.
Preliminary Report on Damage to R/C Structures in Urban Areas of
Ahmedabad & Bhuj
Bhuj Earthquake, January 26, 200. Available on http://www.civil.iitb.ernet.in/BhujEarthquake/Report1.htm
K.N., Rogers, A.M., Perkins, D.M. and Algermissen, S.T., 1984. A
seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas. Tectonophysics,
Javed N. Sohoni, Parag S., Merh, S.S., and Karanth, R. V. 2000.
Palaeoseismology And Neotectonism Of Kachchh, Western India, available
Times of India
In India, those who get less than Rs. 11,000 as annual income
are considered to be below poverty line or the poor.
2. More information on seismic zonation of India
are available on the following websites: http://seismo.ethz.ch/gshap/ict/india.html
3. A detailed account of 1819 earthquake is
available in Bilham (1999) on the website http://cires.colorado.edu/~bilham/Bilham(1998).html.
4. Most of the buildings that collapsed in Ahmedabad
were in two categories: ground plus four and ground plus ten and
5. More detailed reports on building damages
are available on the following websites:
6. Building Use permission is given after a
thorough technical inspection of the completed building. A building
can be occupied for use only after the permission is given by the
The per capita income of Gujarat is Rs. 7,586 annually at 1992-93
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